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  1. Hacking Satellite: A New Universe to Discover Jim Geovedi and Raditya Iryandi BELLUA ASIA PACIFIC
  2. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Disclaimer This presentation is intended to demonstrate the inherent security, design and configuration flaws in publicly accessible satellite communication networks and promote the use of safer satellite communication systems. Viewers and readers are responsible for their own actions and strongly encourage to behave themselves. 
  3. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Satellite • A satellite is any object that orbits another object (which known as its primary). Artificial Satellites • It was the English sci-fi writer Arthur C. Clarke who conceived the possibility of artificial communication satellites in 1945. Clarke examined the logistics of satellite launch, possible orbits and other aspects. • The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1 launched by Soviet Union on 4 October 1957 
  4. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Types of Artificial Satellites • Astronomical satellites • Solar power satellites • Reconnaissance satellites • Space stations • Navigation satellites • Weather satellites • Killer satellites/anti-satellite weapons • Miniaturised satellites • Biosatellites 
  5. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover How is a Satellite Launched into an Orbit? 
  6. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Satellite Internet Services • Used in locations where terrestrial Internet access is not available and in locations which move frequently, e.g. vessels at sea and war zone. • Can be used where the most basic utilities are lacking, require a generator or battery power supply that can produce enough electricity.     7. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Three Types of Satellite Internet Services • One-way multicast: used for IP multicast-based data, audio and video distribution. Most Internet protocols will not work correctly over one-way access, since they require a return channel. • One-way with terrestrial return: used with traditional dial-up access to the Internet, with outbound data travelling through a telephone modem, but downloads are sent via satellite at a speed near that of broadband Internet access. • Two-way satellite access: allows upload and download data communications. 
  7. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) • Two-way satellite ground station with a dish antenna that is smaller than 3 metres. • Nearly all VSAT systems are now based on IP, with a very broad spectrum of applications. • Most commonly used interactive and transactional application (online communication between head office and branches, flight ticket and hotel reservation, ATM (Automated Teller Machine) and small data traffic) and terminal application with centralised database (data entry, inventory control and payment point)
  8.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover 
  9.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Internal Computer (TT&C) Body Power source Attitude control Grapple Fixture Communications Satellite Anatomy 
  10. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover The Control Centre 
  11. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Tracking, Telemetry and Command Station 
  12. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Topologies of VSAT • A star topology, using a central uplink site, such as a network operations centre (NOC), to transport data back and forth to each VSAT terminal via satellite, • A mesh topology, where each VSAT terminal relays data via satellite to another terminal by acting as a hub, minimising the need for a centralised uplink site, • and a combination of both star and mesh topologies. 
  13. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Satellite Footprint • The footprint of a satellite is the ground area that its transponders cover, and determines the satellite dish diameter required to receive each transponder's signal. • There is usually a different map for each transponder (or group of transponders) as each may be aimed to cover different areas of the ground. • Footprint maps usually show either the estimated minimal satellite dish diameter required, or the signal strength in each area measured in dBW.
  14. 100º E - 145.9ºHACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover E (SE Asia, Australia, China, Japan, Korea) Satellite Name Position HD TV TV Digital TV Analog Radio Digital Radio Analog Data ASIASAT 2 100.5º East 0 97 0 51 0 4 EXPRESS A2 103.0º East 0 13 0 12 0 2 ASIASAT 3S 105.5º East 0 258 0 56 0 22 CAKRAWARTA 1 107.7º East 0 70 0 19 0 5 TELKOM 1 108.0º East 0 57 0 0 0 4 AAP 1 108.2º East 0 57 0 0 0 17 BSAT 1A, 2A 110.0º East 10 3 4 14 0 0 JCSAT 110 110.0º East 0 63 0 20 0 0 SINOSAT 1 110.5º East 0 59 0 36 0 4 PALAPA C2 113.0º East 0 31 2 4 0 8 KOREASAT 2 113.0º East 0 48 0 0 0 3 KOREASAT 3 116.0º East 0 125 0 1 0 12 TELKOM 2 118.0º East 0 1 0 0 0 0 THAICOM 1A 120.0º East 0 6 0 1 0 0 ASIASAT 4 122.0º East 0 79 0 1 0 17 JCSAT 4A 124.0º East 0 93 0 0 0 7 JCSAT 3 128.0º East 0 142 0 103 0 21 JCSAT 5A 132.0º East 0 2 0 0 0 0 APSTAR 6 134.0º East 0 46 2 55 0 3 APSTAR V / TELSTAR 18 138.0º East 0 151 0 0 0 2 EXPRESS AM3 140.0º East 0 14 0 8 0 1 SUPERBIRD C 144.0º East 0 57 0 4 0 0 source: http://www.satcodx4.com/eng/ accessed on 28 August 2006 
  15. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover 
  16. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover 
  17. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover 
  18. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover MEASAT-1 @ 91.5º East 
  19. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover PALAPA C2 @ 113.0º East 
  20.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover TELKOM 1 @ 108.0º East 
  21.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover TELKOM 2 @ 118.0º East 
  22. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Attacks against Satellite Systems It’s politically sensitive, but it’s going to happen. Some people don’t want to hear this, and it sure isn’t in vogue … but—absolutely—we’re going to fight in space. We’re going to fight from space and we’re going to fight into space… General Joseph W. Ashy Former Commander in Chief U.S. Space Command source: http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/saas/spacy_wl.pdf accessed on 21 September 2006 
  23. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Hypothetical Attacks against Satellite Systems 
  24. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Denial of Service Attacks • Jam uplink and downlink • White noise at frequency. • Requires directed antenna. • Requires very low power. • Difficult to detect, especially if occurring at irregular intervals. source: http://www.decodesystems.com/attacks.html accessed on 28 August 2006 
  25. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Denial of Service Attacks • Overpower uplink • Can be done with transportable satellite ground terminals • In tri-band (C-band, X-band, and Ku-band). • Power limited. • Uplink equipment now contains ID coding. source: http://www.decodesystems.com/attacks.html accessed on 28 August 2006 
  26. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Orbital Positioning Attacks • Ranging transponder spoofing • Multiple ground stations triangulate satellite position using a series of tones sent to a transponder. • Ground stations observe phase differentials. • Ground or airborne spoofer could transmit false response, resulting in incorrect orbit determination. source: http://www.decodesystems.com/attacks.html accessed on 28 August 2006 
  27. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Orbital Positioning Attacks • Direct commanding • Preparation and delivery of telecommand queue. • Command replay • Record outbound telecommand queue from TT&C facility. Replay later to initiate duplicate action. source: http://www.decodesystems.com/attacks.html accessed on 28 August 2006 
  28. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Orbital Positioning Attacks • Insertion after confirmation but prior to execution • SCC formulates telecommand queue and sends to TT&C. • TT&C uplinks and receives readback, which it returns to SCC. • If readback is correct, SCC waits for proper time to execute. • Channel is vulnerable to update during this period — new telecommand queue may be uploaded prior to authenticated execute. source: http://www.decodesystems.com/attacks.html accessed on 28 August 2006 
  29. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Practical Attacks against Satellite Systems 
  30.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Satellite Piggyjacking: Compromise Network Layer 
  31.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Compromise Network Layer: • Selecting Target • Pointing Antenna • Find “free” Frequency • Trasmit and Receive • Detection Evasion 
  32. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover • DEMO 
  33. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Rogue Carrier Detection Evasion
  34. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Rogue Carrier Detection Evasion 
  35. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Rogue Carrier Detection Evasion Allocated Frequency 
  36. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Rogue Carrier Detection Evasion Allocated Frequency Real User Warning: You are allowed to steal any contents of this material with or without notifying the authors. 35
  37. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Rogue Carrier Detection Evasion Allocated Frequency Real User Warning: You are allowed to steal any contents of this material with or without notifying the authors. 36
  38.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Rogue Carrier Detection Evasion Allocated Frequency Real User Us
  39. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Rogue Carrier Detection Evasion Allocated Frequency Real User Us 
  40. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Rogue Carrier Detection Evasion Allocated Frequency Real User Us 
  41. HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Rogue Carrier Detection Evasion Allocated Frequency Us Warning: You are allowed to steal any contents of this material with or without notifying the authors. 38
  42.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Rogue Carrier Detection Evasion Allocated Frequency Us Warning: You are allowed to steal any contents of this material with or without notifying the authors. 39
  43.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Rogue Carrier Detection Evasion Allocated Frequency 
  44.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Hijacking DVB Connection: Compromise Data Link Layer
  45.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover Compromise Data Link Layer: • Selecting Target • Pointing Antenna • Find Interesting Carrier • Scanning MAC Address • Scanning Free IP Address • Viola! 
  46.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover • DEMO 
  47.  HACKING SATELLITE: A New Universe to Discover • DISCUSSION

Warning: You are allowed to steal any contents of this material with or without notifying the authors. =  Jim Geovedi
Source: http://www.slideshare.net/geovedi/hacking-satellite-a-new-universe-to-discover

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Do u think sunita williams has converted to islam(muslim)?

Best Answer from Yahoo Answer - Chosen by Asker
may i know why you are thinking on this? who are you to think on this topic any way. it is a personal matter or sunita williams. i know if she has embraced islam, but why any body should think on this. if you really want to know the truth then try to find it out by using some authentic sources rather than using internet blog and asking what any body thinks. your question is ridiculous in all the respects. may be you can frame your question like this.

01. do you think that the news aobut sunita williams embracing islam is correct? (this is doubting the info and looking for confirmation)

02. what do you think about sunita williams embracing islam? (this confirms the info and asks for the public opionion)
it looks you are a muslim and i am too. but i just dont understand that what good this news (even if it is correct) will do to islam or to muslims. dont you know, islam is the deen of Allah and is not depending upon people and its followers. just read some verses from quran and you will understand. here are some for you.
A. Iza Qaza Amra, Fa-innama YaQooloo lahu Kun Fayakoon.
B. Leyaz hirahu aladdin-e-kulleh, walau karehal mushrikoon.
Source(s):Quran Chap: 2 Surah Baqarah and Chap: 36 Surah Yaseen.

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